Pre control measures for major hazard sources at t

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Pre control measures for major hazard sources at construction sites

in recent years, China's construction industry has continued to develop rapidly and has become a pillar industry of the national economy, but the safety production conditions formed by its labor-intensive production characteristics make it a high-risk industry; A large number of industrial accidents occur in the construction industry every year, causing major human casualties and property losses, seriously affecting the smooth progress of construction and the image of the industry, and even affecting social stability and economic development. In recent years, with the diversification of the structural forms and facade shapes of various buildings, more and more buildings with the characteristics of high, large, new, special, strange and difficult, the continuous emergence of new materials, new processes, new equipment and new technologies, and the increasingly strict requirements for the safety production of building construction, the state also takes the prevention of major accidents, and should ensure that once an accident occurs, The control of major hazard installations for the purpose of limiting the accident hazards to a minimum has been written into the work safety law as a form of legal provisions: "production and business units should register and file major hazard installations, conduct regular detection, evaluation and monitoring, and formulate emergency plans to inform employees and relevant personnel of the emergency measures that should be taken in an emergency". It can be seen that the control of major hazard installations has become an urgent task for the safety production of construction enterprises in the new era

I. concept of hazard source

hazard source refers to the factors that may cause personal injury or disease, material and property loss, working environment damage or the root cause or state of the combination of these conditions. Both risk factors and hazard factors belong to hazard sources. The hazard source on the construction site refers to the root cause of the accident, which is the production device, facility or place (including various special construction) with energy and/or hazardous and harmful substances that may be accidentally released

II. Concept of major hazard

major hazard sources refer to units (including places and facilities) that produce, handle, use or store hazardous substances for a long time or temporarily, and the number of hazardous substances is equal to or exceeds the critical quantity. The fluidity of construction production, the singleness and diversity of construction products, and the complexity of construction production process all determine the uncertainty in the construction production process. The construction process and working environment must be in a changeable state. In addition, the non standardization of construction manual labor makes heavy physical labor more, and the quality of workers is relatively low, which determines that major hazard sources on the construction site are different from other industries, It has its particularity

Among them,

III. identification of hazard sources

identification of hazard sources is to identify the hazards or hazardous factors that may cause personal injury or disease, property loss and environmental damage from the activities of the organization, and determine the types of accidents that may be caused by them and the places where oil spills directly or where there is a lot of dust The process of setting places with falling steam or corrosive gases outside the house and places exposed to direct sunlight for a long time

1. Basis of hazard identification. Various safety laws, regulations and standards are important basis for hazard identification. To identify hazards, we should first collect safety laws, regulations and standards related to the activities, personnel and facilities of the organization

2. The hazard identification team should do a good job in the identification of hazard sources, and should also set up an identification team. All professionals in the identification team should be involved. Such as safety, fire protection, power, electrical, equipment, civil engineering and other disciplines. In this way, the hazard sources existing in each discipline can be completely identified during identification

3. Hazard identification requires a to consider routine and unconventional activities; B consider the activities of all personnel (including contract personnel and visitors) entering the construction site and living quarters; C. consider the facilities at the construction site and living quarters; D consider three states: normal (such as production), abnormal (such as shutdown for maintenance) and emergency (such as fire); E consider the hazards that have appeared in the past and continue to the present (such as those that have not been solved due to lack of technology and resources or have stopped using but the danger still exists), the current and possible future hazards

4. Identification methods

there are many methods of hazard identification. The commonly used methods are on-site investigation method, work task analysis method, safety checklist method, which definitely let you use reassurance, event tree analysis method, fault tree analysis method, etc. Direct experience method refers to the method of intuitively evaluating the danger and harmfulness of objects by comparing relevant standards, regulations, safety checklists (safety evaluation form and JGJ standards for construction safety inspection can be adopted) or relying on the observation and analysis ability of analysts, with the help of experience and judgment ability. Experience method is a commonly used method in identification. Its advantage is simple and easy to operate. Its disadvantage is that it may be omitted due to the limitation of the knowledge, experience and possession of data of the identification personnel. In order to make up for the lack of personal judgment, expert meetings are often used to inspire each other, exchange opinions, and brainstorm ideas, so that the identification of hazards and hazard factors is more detailed and specific; System safety analysis method; That is to apply some methods of system safety engineering evaluation method to hazard identification. System safety analysis methods are often used in complex systems and newly developed systems without accident experience. Common system safety analysis methods include event tree (ETA), fault tree (FTA), etc

5. Identification category

generally speaking, according to the characteristics of the enterprise and the construction site, events or accidents caused by hazard sources should be divided into the following categories: collapse, object strike, mechanical injury, falling from height, electric shock, fire, explosion, poisoning, dust, noise, vibration, vehicle injury, etc. The activities/products/service items can be divided into: foundation engineering, scaffolding engineering, edge engineering, fire management, formwork engineering, reinforcement operation, concrete operation, decoration, oil storage, return visit and maintenance, construction power operation, material hoist installation, removal and operation, construction elevator, tower crane installation, removal and operation, electrical welding operation, hand-held electric tools operation, lifting and hoisting operation, office area Woodworking machinery operation, pile driving operation, living area management, 3 Improper adjustment of lifting guide wheel and installation of pipeline

6. Identification and update of hazard sources and risks when the following situations occur, relevant departments shall timely organize relevant personnel to identify, evaluate and plan for risk control of new hazards. A when laws, regulations and other requirements change significantly, B when the company's activities, products and services change significantly, C when there are major accidents or serious complaints from interested parties, d when the company's occupational health and safety policy changes

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