Global Times survey: Japanese and Korean farmers have walked the road to cities like this.
"the government will help rural residents settle in cities" is an important signal released by the central economic work conference at the end of last year to promote urbanization and social development. "After farmers enter the city, give farmers the treatment of citizens", "let migrant workers enjoy the relevant housing provident fund, reduce the threshold for migrant workers to settle down, and speed up the citizenization of migrant workers" have become hot topics among the people, experts, scholars and foreign media. Around China, Japan and South Korea have gone through similar stages. Although the historical background and national conditions are different, China can still learn from the measures of how Japanese and South Korean farmers integrate into cities and become urban residents. The global times made an in-depth investigation and interview
the small apartments in metropolitan areas such as Tokyo have gradually westernized Japanese life.
you can take the subway from the most advanced office area in Tokyo, otamachi, for 40 minutes to reach a place called Takashima Ping. If you are from Beijing or Shanghai, you will feel like you are in Changping, Beijing or Jiading, Shanghai. However, unlike Changping or Jiading, some residents in gaodaoping "Tuanti" (community) usually can only see white haired elderly people, with elderly people pushing their helpers out. Tanaka Jianfu, 67, moved away from the "Tuanti" in Takashima Ping many years ago. He felt that "it's all old people, which makes people very uncomfortable". 45 years ago, after graduating from Tanaka University, he came to work in Tokyo with great interest, and then rented a house and got married. At that time, the transportation was far less convenient than it is now. It took more than an hour by car from Takashima to Tokyo City, but it was very good to find a job and a house in Tokyo. In particular, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government has prepared a large number of government run "Tuanti" for people from rural areas and small cities, which has solved the housing problem and made them take root in Tokyo. At most, there are more than 300000 people living in Takashima, and there are many places like Takashima around Tokyo
Chen Yan, executive dean of the Japanese enterprise (China) Research Institute, heard a story from Yoshiko inoumura, an honorary professor at Keio University in Japan. Inoumura said, "since the 1950s, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Fukuoka and other places have gradually become heavy industrial development zones, requiring a large number of workers. Every March, when students graduate, young people who have just graduated pack a whole train and come to Tokyo from local small cities and rural areas." According to Professor Kimura, "before 2000, the lack of labor force has always been the biggest problem in Japan's economy". Japan has hardly accepted immigrants after the war. The labor force is completely solved by its own country. Letting farmers work in cities is the main method adopted by the government
Japanese economist Takashi Koyama wrote in the book "the latest introduction to the Japanese economy" that Japan's economy has experienced rapid growth since the 1960s, which is inseparable from the massive movement of rural population to the city. Tokyo circle, Nagoya circle and Osaka circle are three metropolitan circles in Japan. According to Japanese official statistics, from 1957 to 1970, industrial development required labor, which attracted a large number of rural surplus population into the city, and the three metropolitan circles added 8.2 million new residents
Suzuki, 69, was originally a farmer in Akita county and worked in an automobile manufacturing company before retiring. Suzuki told the global times that when he came to Tokyo in the early 1960s, the house he rented was very small, but the development of Japan's economy made him really feel that life was getting better and better. Gradually, from renting to buying a house, young people from rural areas became technical executives of the company. A book called "seeing our life" records the life of Suzuki's generation of farmers who came to the city. The book describes that between 1955 and 1964, about 14% of Tokyo's residents were facing housing difficulties, especially 35% of them had a living area of less than 5 square meters. In order to solve the problem of housing shortage, the Japanese government set up a housing finance public treasury to provide low interest loans for individuals or companies to build houses, and set up a Japanese Housing Corporation to build a large number of apartments in the suburbs of the metropolis. Although the apartment is small, it has a kitchen, living room and bathroom, which makes the Japanese life begin to westernize. The Global Times has been to residential apartments built in the 1970s and 1980s in the suburbs of Tokyo. Because the rent is low, these apartments have become the choice of many students studying in Japan when they first arrive. It is understood that it takes Tama more than an hour to get to Tokyo by tram, but when the monthly rent of a house with an area of about 54 square meters is the cheapest, it only costs 62800 yen (about 3500 yuan)
industrial workers enter cities to stimulate Japanese consumption, but they do not need to be concentrated in metropolitan areas
generally speaking, Japan has no household registration restrictions on residents. Anyone who has his own place of residence in the city, whether rented or bought, can apply for registered residence from the government. The government will register the contents of the declaration after confirming them. With such a registered residence, you can apply for health insurance and so on, which is easy to take root in the city
Chen Yan came into contact with a large number of Japanese industrial workers during his study in Japan in the 1980s. The biggest difference between Chen Yan and China is that although many Japanese workers come from rural areas, they finally become skilled industrial workers because they can settle in cities. Modern cities, which are mainly composed of industrial workers, have the fastest development speed and can promote urban consumption and culture to take root in the city. The industrial worker named Taisan Zhicun still keeps in touch with Chen Yan. He went to Tokyo as a mechanic as soon as he graduated from high school. Compared with the rural migrant workers in early China, he has not changed his job or city. 2: Frame: the frame part of the frame is welded by angle steel, channel steel and other shapes. His work is stable, and there is no household registration problem. Now his daughter has gone to university, and he has also purchased a two-story building in the suburbs. There is a difference between manual labor and mental labor in Japan, but the wage difference is not very big. Enterprises have great respect for skilled workers. Compared with administrators of the same age, Chen Yan feels that Zhicun has a higher status
Chen Yan believes that the continuous accumulation of industrial technology in the hands of workers like Zhicun is a major feature of Japan's technological development. When a country's economy develops at a high speed, that is, when the industry develops at the fastest speed, it is also the best stage of industrial technology accumulation. Every worker has skills. After settling down in the city, they have become an important force for industrial progress. Farmers can become industrial and technical workers in cities and owners of small and medium-sized enterprises, which is a great feature of Japanese farmers after entering cities
Chen Yan found during his research in Japan that countless factories will be seen on the Pacific side of eastern Japan, and the cities are large, but when he reached the west side of the sea of Japan, he will not find a factory for hundreds of kilometers. The cities are small, and the countryside looks very depressed. Speaking of this phenomenon, Professor inoumura believes that Japan's urban planning has failed. Once the economic development of Tokyo and Osaka stagnates, the whole of Japan will be affected. If Japan, like Germany, focuses on small and medium-sized cities and plans the economic layout of the whole country, and allows farmers to disperse to various cities when they enter the city, Japan's economic development vitality will be better than that now concentrated in metropolitan areas such as Tokyo. In addition, due to the serious aging of young children and the good reputation and quality of this electromechanical in the testing equipment, the rural population of former Japan has decreased significantly. Therefore, the government is introducing new policies to let urban people return to the countryside
Korean real estate enterprises have the obligation to build a certain proportion of social rental housing
similar to Japanese local and rural youth who pack trains to Tokyo and other big cities to make a living, South Korea has also experienced the wave of "leaving the village to the capital". During the reign of Park Chung Hee in the 1960s, he vigorously promoted industrial policies, and the development of industry attracted rural population to enter the city on a large scale and become industrial workers. At that time, large cities such as Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon and emerging industrial cities such as Ulsan and poshang attracted a large number of rural labor, which was known as "leaving the village to the capital"
these young people who are "from the village to the capital" are mainly concentrated in the industrial development zones of big cities and near universities. Taking the South Korean capital as an example, the Jiulao District in the southwest of Seoul was classified as a South Korean export industrial park in the 1960s, with a large number of labor-intensive enterprises producing leather shoes, clothing and heavy industry. Most of the initial labor force were "migrant girls" female workers, and their working and living environment was poor. Generally, they rent and print out near the park; Among the residential houses divided into small rooms in Lifeng cave, each of which is less than 7 square meters, and there are only public health facilities. These workers' dormitories are vividly called "honeycomb houses". By the late 1960s, even the "honeycomb house" was hard to find, which prompted the South Korean government to build a number of national residences and apartments. According to the first five-year economic development plan, the Korean housing commune was officially established in 1962. As a state-owned enterprise, it is responsible for the construction and rental management of national apartments. The commune is responsible for the construction of a variety of social housing, including public housing, public rental housing, permanent rental housing, national rental housing, etc. Public houses with an area of less than 85 square meters are purchased by long-term residents, and the price is cheaper than commercial houses; The term of permanent rental housing is 50 years, and the target is low-income households; The lease term of national rental housing is 30 years, and the households are low-income households; Public rental houses are mainly rented first and sold to the original tenants 10 to 20 years later
the global times visited a permanent rental house rented by an old man in Seoul alone, with a usable area of less than 40 square meters. A small room is used as a study and bedroom, a large room is used as a living room and bedroom, and the kitchen is the aisle into the door. It is understood that the monthly rent here is about 400000 won (2220 yuan), and the government also pays subsidies every month, so the elderly don't have to worry about rent. People living here are all low-income vulnerable groups, including people receiving state relief, disabled people and so on
now the Korean housing commune is renamed Korean land and housing company, which is still building and managing all kinds of social housing. In addition, there are state-owned housing companies all over the country, which are responsible for housing construction in local cities. In the reconstruction and reconstruction of large cities, the development enterprises have the obligation to build the proportion of social rental housing, that is, the number of rental housing households accounts for 5% to 20% of the total number of housing households. These rental houses can be rented to low-income groups. However, there are also voices of opposition to this provision in South Korea, because joining the social rental housing will affect the house prices of other houses
relying on equal basic education, South Korea completed the city myebox in a generation. Myebox is a model in many innovative uses. Urbanization
the national conditions of China and South Korea are different after all. Dong Xiangrong, a researcher at the Asia Pacific and Global Strategy Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, told the global times that the main experience of South Korean migrant workers' rapid integration into the city is: first, before the rapid economic growth, land, as one of the important factors of production, has been fairly evenly distributed. South Korean farmers have the ownership of land in their hands, and the funds obtained after land transactions can be used as a money bag and a stepping stone to enter the city, It helps new immigrants gain a foothold in the city and also contributes to equal social distribution; Secondly, corresponding to the process of high-speed urbanization, South Korea mainly developed labor-intensive industries in the 1960s and early 1970s, attracting
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